In the autumn of 1973, the US Army executed Exercise REFORGER V between 29 September and 22 November. This was the fifth exercise in the series since the first REFORGER (REturn of FORces to GERmany) had been carried out in 1969. The core of REFORGER V was the field training exercise (FTX) Certain Charge conducted by the US Army and which saw the participation of 51,000 American, German, Canadian and French troops. The context in which REFORGER V took place was very particular. The US operational engagement in the Vietnam War had ended in 1973. US land and air forces were gradually returning home from Southeast Asia and shifting their focus to Europe again. Lessons learned in the Vietnam War were now applied to tactics on European soil.